Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal cancers. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States [
]. Nearly 40,000 Americans are affected by this disease every year and more than half of these individuals succumb to cancer-related complications [
- Society, AC
American Cancer Society: cancer facts and figures.
]. Even with cases that are identified early and undergo surgical resection, the diagnosis of PDA is associated with an overall 5-year survival rate of only 6% to 25% [
- Society, AC
American Cancer Society: cancer facts and figures.
]. Although many resources and large genome-profiling studies have been completed (Fig. 1) [
- Kleeff J.
- Michalski C.W.
- Friess H.
- et al.
Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer: the role of adjuvant and multimodal therapies.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007; 33: 817-823
- Jones S.
- Hruban R.H.
- Kamiyama M.
- et al.
Exomic sequencing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.
Science. 2009; 324: 217
4], the clinical management of this disease has still made only modest strides in the past 2 decades.
- Jones S.
- Zhang X.
- Parsons D.W.
- et al.
Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses.
Science. 2008; 321: 1801-1806
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