The training of general surgeons in the United States can trace its roots back to the system introduced by William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and many of the unique components persist today [
]. The training was hospital based, university sponsored, with the expectation that residents would gain knowledge and understanding of the scientific basis of surgical principles, ultimately resulting in increased responsibility over several years of training [
- Halsted W.S.
The training of the Surgeon.
Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1904; 15: 267-275
]. This training culminated in a final period of near-total independence and autonomy. The results of this training under Halsted were quite remarkable, and those who completed the Halsted training went on to direct departments of surgery at the leading institutions of the day [
- Cameron J.L.
William Stewart Halsted. Our surgical heritage.
Ann Surg. 1997; 225: 445-458
- Carter B.N.
The fruition of Halsted’s concept of surgical training.
Surgery. 1952; 32: 518-527
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- The training of the Surgeon.Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1904; 15: 267-275
- William Stewart Halsted. Our surgical heritage.Ann Surg. 1997; 225: 445-458
- The fruition of Halsted’s concept of surgical training.Surgery. 1952; 32: 518-527
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Published online: July 04, 2011
© 2011 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.