Review Article| Volume 45, ISSUE 1, P275-284, September 2011

How to Change General Surgery Residency Training

      The training of general surgeons in the United States can trace its roots back to the system introduced by William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and many of the unique components persist today [
      • Halsted W.S.
      The training of the Surgeon.
      ]. The training was hospital based, university sponsored, with the expectation that residents would gain knowledge and understanding of the scientific basis of surgical principles, ultimately resulting in increased responsibility over several years of training [
      • Cameron J.L.
      William Stewart Halsted. Our surgical heritage.
      ]. This training culminated in a final period of near-total independence and autonomy. The results of this training under Halsted were quite remarkable, and those who completed the Halsted training went on to direct departments of surgery at the leading institutions of the day [
      • Carter B.N.
      The fruition of Halsted’s concept of surgical training.
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